"To you I will give all this authority..."

Another piece of Jesus' response to (human) authority was his avoidance of taking on such roles himself. Even when they were pressed on him. For example:

And the devil took him up, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, and said to him, "To you I will give all this authority and their glory; for it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will. If you, then, will worship me, it shall all be yours."

And Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'" (Lk 4.5-8)

One of the multitude said to him, "Teacher, bid my brother divide the inheritance with me." But Jesus said to him, "Man, who made me a judge or divider over you?" (Lk 12.13-14)

When the people saw the sign which he had done, they said, "This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world!" Perceiving then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the mountain by himself. (Jn 6.14-15)

Then there's these passages, which are not as straightforward, but I think they highlight that Jesus was not an offical, trained (or "ordained") scribe or rabbi. (Though his followers did sometimes call him rabbi, recognizing his wisdom and ability to teach.) Notice also, in both of these passages, how Jesus contrasts human (our own) authority and God's authority:

One day, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes with the elders came up and said to him, "Tell us by what authority you do these things, or who it is that gave you this authority."

He answered them, "I also will ask you a question; now tell me, Was the baptism of John from heaven or from men?" And they discussed it with one another, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why did you not believe him?' But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us; for they are convinced that John was a prophet." So they answered that they did not know whence it was.

And Jesus said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things." (Lk 20.1-8)

About the middle of the feast Jesus went up into the temple and taught. The Jews marveled at it, saying, "How is it that this man has learning, when he has never studied?"

So Jesus answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me; if any man's will is to do his will, he shall know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. He who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood." (Jn 7.14-18)

Jesus did not need human power or authority to serve God (and us), and he saw that the use of it contradicted his message, witnessing to human self-achievement rather than demonstrating faith and dependence on the power of God--who said, "My power is made perfect in weakness" (2 Cor 12.9). So Jesus rejected it. He had no more need for Caesar's (physical, political, institutional) might than he did for Caesar's money.